The Chancellor said he intends to build 100,000 new homes in the five environmentally friendly developments, which will rely entirely on sustainable energy sources.
Each of the towns will be built to current zero-carbon standards, making them exempt from stamp duty, which is seen as a major obstacle for first-time buyers.
The move will be particularly welcomed by practices such as Bill Dunster's ZEDFactory and BBM Architects, which are leading the industry in building zero-carbon developments.
The first site earmarked by Brown is the abandoned Oakington Barracks in Cambridgeshire, recently bought by English Partnerships for £100 million. Councils will be invited to bid for the other four towns.
Speaking about his new plans, Brown said: 'If we are to meet the aspirations of every young couple to do the best for themselves and their children, then we need to build new homes, and we need to deliver well-planned, green and prosperous communities where they will want to live.'