The Vincent Scully Prize for his contribution to architecture and community planning will be handed to him on his whistle-stop tour of America.
The award, which recognises the Prince of Wales' 'long-standing interest in the built environment and creating urban areas with human scale', will be presented to him at a ceremony in Washington tonight (3 November).
Previous winners of the National Building Museum's most prestigious prize include the Aga Khan, Robert Venturi and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberg - one of the pioneers of the New Urbanist movement.
The chairman of the award's jury, David Schwarz, said: 'Through his speeches, publications and charitable foundations, The Prince of Wales has articulated the need for balancing growth of cities, promoted traditional town planning and elevated public awareness of architecture.'
After the presentation the Prince, who becomes the sixth recipient of the award, will give a talk about his passion for architecture.
Prince Charles is currently in the middle of his first official tour of the US with his wife, the Duchess of Cornwall.