Kensington and Chelsea Borough Council's Planning Committee last night gave the project the green light - despite local opposition.
Cameron's neighbour Barbara Want spoke at the meeting to voice her objections to the plans, describing them as an 'eyesore'.
The work, which is being undertaken by Michaelis Boyd Architects, also included plans to create a basement space, which were turned down.
Councillors also insisted that use of the turbine would have to be reviewed after three years because it was the first in the area.
Want told the committee hearing that the plans would spoil the character of the conservation area, which is largely made up of Edwardian two-storey properties.
She said her main objections were against a 'light well', that would form part of the basement development, and the wind turbine.
'I love this area, I don't want to see it harmed and I believe that these proposals will harm it,' she added.
Architect Alex Michaelis told the meeting that the wind turbine and solar panels would together contribute to more than 30 per cent of the Camerons' energy bills.
Although he agreed that the turbine design could not be considered completely unobtrusive, he argued that better designs were being developed all the time and could replace it in the future.
Cameron was not at the meeting, but was said to be 'delighted' with the decision, which now allows work to start on the building while he stays in temporary accommodation.
A spokesman for Cameron said outside the meeting that the Tory leader was 'delighted and very happy that he can get on with building and moving into his house'.