Designed in collaboration with local practice Fox & Fowle, the proposed redevelopment will add around 130,000m 2of new exhibition space to the complex - almost doubling its size.
The scheme will also create a massive ballroom, loading facilities and a 1,500-room hotel.
Rogers originally won the project to overhaul I M Pei's original building in September last year after seeing off competition from fellow British practice Grimshaw and entries from Morphosis with Gruzen Samton, as well as Rafael Viñoly Architects.
Convention Centre Development Corporation chairman Charles A Gargano said: 'The Javits Centre will be a magnet for economic activity for decades to come. It deserves the very best and that's exactly what we were presented with today.
'The [Rogers team's] presentation showed an unmatched understanding of the project objectives to create a world-class, state-of-the-art, fully functional international convention centre.'
Work on the first phase of the project is expected to start in the summer and is due to finish in 2010.