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Vibrant cities need to breathe in and don their urban girdles

The defence of towns and cities, often achieved by walls, has unwittingly produced great rewards. The walls around Lucca in Tuscany, which were started in the 16th century, are 4.2km of uninterrupted structure.Their construction was initiated by the Medici family as it went to great lengths to expand its stately domain. A host of military architects was commissioned to execute the task, which took approximately 100 years to complete. The only adaptation to the walls - 10m high, and ...

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