The hole thing
The challenge created by unsightly tie holes in facades has long been a thorny issue but architect Ada Karmi-Melamede has addressed this innovatively at her life-sciences complex for the University of Negev in Israel. The nature of the building dictated that vital formwork supports would have interrupted the regular grid of ties, but Karmi-Melamede introduced a method of stabilising the formwork from the outside and developed 'mini' ties, some 25 per cent of the normal diameter. This process is described in her book, which uses the project to explore her love of concrete. Ada Karmi- Melamede Architect: Life Sciences Buildings is published by Birkhõuser, £42.09.