Needless to say, the question of design coding raised its head at this session, not least because of the presence of John Norquist, American head of the Congress for New Urbanism. Codes are all the rage, with a report from CABE launched at the conference on pilot projects using various forms of coding. The interim conclusion is that codes have something going for them, but as session chair Paul Finch noted, one way or another all applications have codes attached to them, it is just a question of whether they are general (building regulations, unitary development plans) or more site-specific. Prediction: we will all agree that smart coding by good designers can be really helpful. But what about dumb coding by not very good designers? As ever, it is a question of who is appointing whom to do what.