So LEDs have much to offer. Already superior to conventional tungsten and halogen light sources in terms of luminous efficacy, they may soon rival the efficiency and light quality of fluorescent and discharge lamps.
However, there are performance and design challenges LEDs have to meet, for example those associated with colour stability, heat and average life of the most recently developed blue and white LEDs.
So there is still space within the market for non-LED products: Office Philips' Carpe Diem Philips' Carpe Diem luminaire brings the dynamic of natural daylight into the office.
Its design is based around a reflector that provides even light distribution. Carpe Diem can react to changing daylight levels by adjusting intensity and colour temperature to simulate daylight rhythm.
The luminaire provides dynamic lighting solutions for both the individual and the workspace. This Personal Light solution gives each user the freedom to select their lighting conditions. With the Dynamic Ambience solution, the lighting in the entire room is varied.
ETAP Cloud The Cloud has a high technical performance that satisifi s demanding aesthetic and mechanical requirements. The product was originally developed for a bank that required the installation of 1,200 fittings in the dealer and office areas.
The Cloud makes an aesthetic statement and provides comfortable lighting for end users. It also provides 400 lux on the working plane from 2.75m and 4.1m mounting heights at a spacing of 3m, with a minimum of 57 per cent LOR.
Optelma Lighting - 'TT' Profile Optelma's 'TT' Profi le has a clever bi? asymmetric indirect reflector system.
This allows the luminaire to be positioned close to the ceiling but to still have a good distribution of light across it. This distribution is achieved by positioning the lamps as far apart and as far out as possible within the constraints of the extrusion, without them being seen.
The asymmetric refl ectors throw light across the ceiling. This gives control of the upward component and prevents the creation of 'blobs' of light.
The featured project shows the luminaire positioned 250mm down from the ceiling and still creating good visual brightness and lighting level. In this case the reflector system was built into a 'made to measure' lighting approach, which incorporated downlighting, therefore allowing the visual impression to be altered.
Exterior Regent Lighting - Zoom The Zoom range from Regent Lighting consists of projectors for indoors and outdoors (IP65) and also downlighters.
We particularly like the OutMax exterior luminaire for its clarity of shape and uniform distribution of light. It also has a horizontal rotation of 360 ° (without dead angles). (See also page 24) Holophane - Torxa Featuring a cylindrical stainless-steel column perforated with a series of diffuser slots and crowned by refl ective disks, Torxa provides a stunning apparition that culminates in a bell of light 600mm high, producing a circular pool of light. Perfect for parks, gardens, office frontages and pedestrian areas.
Public spaces iGuzzini Illuminazione (UK) - GEM The GEM suspended luminaire was developed for the new Terminal E at Charles de Gaulle Airport in Paris. The luminaire is particularly suited to public spaces that require constant light and in which maintenance work needs to be limited. The huge barrel vault with openings over the entire surface is reminiscent of a classical coffered ceiling structure. Here, iGuzzini has developed an essential luminaire, like a naked light source, which is inserted into the openings on the vaults by means of suspension cables. GEM is a fi tting developed for extreme uses, 24 hours a day, with longlasting induction lamps as well as fluorescent or metal-halide lamps.
Siteco - Mirrortec Projector 400 The Siteco Mirrortec Projector 400 has been optimised specifi cally for the secondary reflector system application. This means that the complete reflector surface is illuminated evenly without the creation of a central 'hot spot'. The light beam is so well controlled that it only hits the reflector, maximising the light efficacy and avoiding light pollution.
Dominic Meyrick runs Hoare Lea's lighting division Hoare Lea Lighting was commissioned by architect Jaques Muir and Partners (acting for ClearChannel Entertainment) to design and implement the auditorium feature lighting of the Apollo Victoria, a Grade IIlisted cinema/theatre.
The 1929 design incorporated 3,500 GLS lamps in two colours on separate dimmable channels to give the illusion of an underwater palace. This layout had become unusable due to high maintenance.
The brief was to replace the GLS lamps with a system that allowed for colour changes and to devise a control method to exploit that facility.
Design solution LEDs were chosen as the ideal light source for this application because they incorporate the following qualities: colour-mixing capabilities, low running cost, long lamp life, DMX controllable, and no dimmers needed.
Long life and durability were particularly crucial because some fi xtures are in almost unreachable positions.
The LED fi ttings and circuit boards are housed within an aluminium extrusion with a polycarbonate diffuser cover. Each fitting is designed with a fl ying lead and socket for easy 'daisy chain' connecting of fittings.
Both power and data are supplied through the same cable, making the installation as efficient as possible.
The fi xtures are located within the architectural detail, which conceals the source. There are 975 fixtures (82,920 LEDs) in 160 controllable groups using 643 DMX channels. Each group has four channels: red, green, blue and dimmer. This takes full advantage of the effects engine in theatre desks (writing up a four-channel fixture profile for the LED fittings).
For control it was felt that a full-blown theatre lighting control desk was needed.
The Grand MA Ultralight, from MA Lighting, was specifi ed. This had all the desired features, for example an effects engine, DMX and MIDI input for slaving the desk from another lighting controller, and an easy-to-use touch screen for custom confi guration and ease of programming.
The system is highly flexible and can create a wide range of impressive effects.
Energy efficiency and management A comparative breakdown of GLS and LED lighting can be seen in the table above. As is shown below, when applied to this case, significant savings can be made:
Hours used per show 4.75 Number of shows per week 8 Hours used a year 1,976 Cost of electricity (ú/kWh) 0.055 Life expectancy of LED installation in years 30* Number of GLS lamp changes over 30 years 24 Energy savings over 30 years ú661,800** Energy and maintenance cost savings over 30 years ú807,000 (* LEDs have a quoted life of 100,000 hours.
Even after this time, there would probably not be a 'catastrophic' failure, but the LED luminaires may dim. At 1,976 hours per year, this means that the LED fittings could function successfully for more than 50 years.
However, since the manufacturer, NJO, cannot be entirely sure about the longevity of the printed circuit boards and the other components making up the lighting system, it prefers to err on the side of caution and give the more conservative estimate regarding the life of the LED luminaires as 30+ years.
** Excluding infl ation and changes in unit rates of electricity.
Successful solution The result is a stunning solution where LEDs are used on a scale not previously seen. Their imaginative use creates a beautiful lighting effect, where a wide range of colours can be used to light the auditorium's exquisite architectural detail.
The feature lighting fulfils the brief. The solution is sympathetic to the original 1929 design intention. Low maintenance and running costs have also been achieved.
Architect's verdict 'The client is delighted with the result - I congratulate ClearChannel Entertainment on having the foresight to go with this pioneering scheme. LEDs last for many years so the need to access these places, which are almost impossible to reach, should be a long time hence. Running costs are also infinitely less than for other lighting sources. The real pleasure of it though is that we can render whatever colour we want. The feature lighting will be the talking point and certainly fulfi ls the brief to return this important building back to its original lighting mode.' John Muir is senior partner of Jaques Muir and Partners
SUPPLIERS CUSTOM-MADE LEDS NJO Technology INSTALLATION Fagan Electrical and Stage Electrics CONTROL AC Lighting EXTRUSION Optelma Lighting
READER ENQUIRIES AC/DC 1400 Color Kinetics Incorporated 1401 Crescent Lighting 1402 Cube Lighting and Design 1403 Element Labs North America 1404 Eness Lighting Systems 1405 ETAP Lighting 1406 Hoare Lea Lighting 1407 Holophane 1408 iGuzzini Illuminazione 1409 Light Engine 1410 The Light Projects Group 1411 Lumileds 1412 NJO Technology 1413 Optelma Lighting 1414 Philips Lighting 1415 Public Screen & Lightsystem 1416 Regent 1417 Siteco 1418