A city for new labour
Stepping out of Sheffield Midland station and seeing the sun bouncing off Branson Coates' pop music centre, the thought strikes you: could this be the Bilbao of the UK? The comparison is not so far-fetched.
South Yorkshire, like the Basque country, has suffered from the decline of its traditional industries - notably mining and steel - which has spawned deep-rooted social and environmental problems. In decentralised Spain, however, the Basques have been given the power and the money to tackle those problems. South Yorkshire, in contrast, has been the victim of the bullying and indifference, by turn, of hostile London politicians - though when Paddy Ashdown lashed Sheffield as a 'rotten borough' recently, he struck a raw nerve with New Labour, itself committed to the cause of the city.
During the modern era, architecture and politics have been more closely intertwined in Sheffield than in any other major regional centre. The city was a natural stronghold for Labour. Known as a centre of cutlery and tool-making, and hence of small crafts workshops, since the Middle Ages, it developed a large-scale steel industry during the second half of the nineteenth century. In comparison with, say, Manchester or Leeds, Sheffield has relatively few distinguished Victorian buildings.
The town hall was not built until the 1890s and is a fussy and rather unmemorable, if lavish, affair. The cash was spent on the mansions of steel magnates and cutlers. When the ruling class began to acquire a social conscience, towards the end of the nineteenth century, and the age of democracy loomed, Sheffield became something of a leader in the public housing field. In the post-1945 period, with Labour firmly in control, the rebuilding campaign - Sheffield had suffered considerable war damage - was renewed. In 1953 J L Womersley became city architect and proceeded to recruit bright young men to work for him - they included Andrew Derbyshire, who designed the new Castle Market, Jack Lynn, and Ivor Smith, the last two being in charge of the monumental, 'streets in the sky', Park Hill project.
With the backing of the Conservative government, Park Hill was begun in 1956 as the new home of 3500 people. Pevsner admired its bravura, but predicted that it would eventually become a slum.
After some years of uncertainty, when the spectre of demolition was raised, the local authority is apparently committed to retaining and refurbishing the estate, which English Heritage wants to see listed.
The government, like its predecessor, seems afraid to take this momentous step.
During the Womersley era, Sheffield was applauded by social commentators and architectural critics alike. 'No other English city except London can show so impressive an architectural record, ' wrote Pevsner in 1959. But the commercial architecture built during the 1960s was generally as dire as that of any other large UK city (Cole Brothers' store by YRM was a notable exception. ) It was the public sector that excelled: housing, schools, and the new university buildings by Gollins, Melvin & Ward - though the rejected university scheme by the Smithsons has remained one of the great unbuilts of modern architectural history. GMW's 20-storey Arts Tower (completed in 1965) is a major landmark, even if the appropriateness of the Miesian tower form to teaching and research remains doubtful. More local landmarks were created in the form of a group of outstanding churches by Basil Spence and the (still undervalued) Yorkbased specialist George Pace. RHWL's Crucible Theatre, opened in 1971, was a pioneering design, intended to emulate the much-admired Nottingham Playhouse.
The confidence of these years was quickly dissipated when the Thatcherite revolution hit Sheffield.
The denationalised steel industry was rapidly 'rationalised' and up to 30,000 jobs vanished. Other related industries declined or moved out - even David Mellor transferred his operations across the border into Derbyshire. The collapse of the South Yorkshire coal industry was another massive blow.
Thatcherism swept away the legacy of a long period of municipal socialism, including the low-cost, integrated public transport system. Part of the city, centred on the Don Valley and its steelworks, was taken out of the local authority's planning control and placed in the hands of the Sheffield Development Corporation. Even before the SDC - which left a rather mixed architectural legacy - came into being, planning permission had been given for the Meadowhall Centre, close to the M1. Designed by Chapman Taylor, this vast PoMo shopping complex hit city-centre retailers hard. The new tram system - recently sold at a knockdown price of £1 million to Stagecoach - funnelled shoppers into Meadowhall.
Its cost, and that of the 1991 World Student Games, pushed the city in the direction of insolvency and shook Labour's hold on the council - much to the glee of the Tory government and other critics of 'the socialist republic of South Yorkshire'. The Hillsborough stadium disaster further coloured the poor image of a city which seemed to be hitting rock-bottom.
Andrew Beard, Womersley's successor as city architect (though presiding over a very different operation known as Sheffield Design and Property), does not underestimate Sheffield's problems. 'It's a low-wage city, with a tradition of manual work and a relatively small professional class, ' he says.
Far from having a housing shortage, we've got plenty of empty council housing , with 50 per cent of our tenants over 60. We need to refashion the city for the future.'
Beard points to the way Sheffield is capitalising on its strengths. The Student Games may have been a fiasco, but produced the Sports Institute project which could see £60 million worth of development around the Don Valley Stadium (which Beard's team designed with YRM/Anthony Hunt). Education is a major industry in its own right, with both the highly-rated University of Sheffield and Hallam University expanding fast. With an eye, perhaps, on what has been achieved in Birmingham, Sheffield is developing its 'cultural industries'. It has done well out of the National Lottery - far better, for example, than its overbearing and far more affluent neighbour, Leeds - though the rejection of Allies & Morrison's enlightened plan to green and pedestrianise a large area of the city centre was a blow. (The lead role in masterplanning has now passed to Terry Farrell, in charge of the 'Heart of the City' project. ) Branson Coates' pop centre is complete. Pringle/Richards/Sharratt's 'wintergarden' and V&A Gallery complex promises to be spectacular. Securing further Lottery cash for Penoyre & Prasad's proposed refurbishment of the city hall would be a considerable coup, and the chances appear good. Like Birmingham, Sheffield is tackling the problem of intrusive highways, like Arundel Gate, which destroyed the cohesiveness of the city centre in the 1960s. Undervalued buildings are being reused - the 'cultural industries quarter' is rooted in conversion schemes. And, a sure indicator that the city has plenty to offer, housing developers are at work in the central area. The conversion of the former canal warehouse (as Victoria Quays, by Hadfield/Cawkwell/Davidson) was a success against the odds - the canal basin, attractive in itself, remains isolated by roads from the commercial core - and other conversion schemes are in progress.
For a decade or more, Sheffield has drifted but there is a new confidence in the air. While it may lack the lawyers, civil servants and media folk of Leeds and Manchester, Sheffield has a strong tradition of creativity and sheer graft. The Full Monty made the place look grim, but it also celebrated those virtues. Architecture, it is clear, has an important role to play in redefining Sheffield for the twenty first century. Architects like Nigel Coates and John Pringle are enthused by the open-mindedness and radical tastes of a new generation of clients in the city. But grand gestures, in the Park Hill or Meadowhall mode, are out. The priority is to make the city work, not to remake it, and the force behind change will be private capital, supplemented by the lottery and other public sources, including the EU.
Sheffield could become the classic New Labour city.
SHEFFIELD FACT FILE
POLITICS City Council: 50 Labour, 36 Liberal Democrats, 1 Conservative
There are four designated Single Regeneration Budget areas UNIVERSITIES University of Sheffield: School of Architecture has approximately 215 undergraduates and 40 postgraduates Sheffield Hallam University has a school of construction and a design section
Workforce 205,000 The largest employers are: administration; health; education - 55,000; services - 46,000; manufacturing - 42,000 (the majority of companies are connected to the steel industry)
UNEMPLOYMENT 19,000, or 8.5 percent
TRANSPORT Sheffield Airport connects the city to other UK destinations.
There is an urban tram system
LAND AND PREMISES
Office accommodation £80-120/m 2, industrial £3040/m 2, average four-bed house approx. £85,000
27 RIBA-registered practices. The largest are: HLM Design (20 architects), Building Design Partnership (13 architects), Trent Architecture + Design (10 architects) The 'Heart of the City' project will transform 2.5 hectares of land to the north of Arundel Gate. The masterplan includes the Millennium Gallery (left and above near left) which starts on site this month and is to be run in association with the Victoria and Albert Museum; a twenty-first-century interpretation of the Victorian wintergarden (above far left); and a landscaped public space for performances. The two buildings are linked, and both are designed by Pringle Richards Sharratt.